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Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis MRI

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) Radiology

  1. ated encephalomyelitis is usually a monophasic illness, although, within the episode, individual lesions may be of varying stages of evolution, with different lesions maturing over a number of weeks 4. In 10% of cases, relapse within the first three months is encountered 12
  2. ated en-cephalomyelitis. The third case showed differ-ent radiologic signs. Inasmuch as there are nostriking differences in the histopathology, wewant to emphasize the MR appearance of acutedisse
  3. ated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) are presumed to have radiological monophasic disease, but this is uncertain since follow-up brain MRI is not routinely performed
  4. ated encephalomyelitis. Lesions are usually bilateral, asymmetric, and most commonly in the frontal and parietal lobes. Corpus callosal involvement similar to that observed in multiple sclerosis has been described
  5. ated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in adults, based on our clinical observations of a case-series. Methods: Over a period of three years 10 adult patients with a para- or postinfectious disse

  1. ated encephalomyelitis in children - clinical and MRI decision making in the emergency department. Bisker Kassif O (1), Orbach R (1), Rimon A (1), Scolnik D (2), Glatstein M (3)
  2. ated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a severe, acute, demyelinating disease of the CNS. It is usually triggered by an inflammatory response to viral infections and vaccinations. A hemorrhagic, hyperacute variant of ADEM (AHEM/AHLE or Hurst disease) has also been described (1, 2)
  3. ated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an acute widespread demyelinating condition, which principally affects brain and spinal cord (box 1). It usually follows an infection or vaccination. The disease is characterised by multifocal white matter lesions on neuroimaging. ADEM is a monophasic disease
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis | Image | Radiopaedia

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: prognostic value of

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: an MRI/MRS

Timely MRI studies allow early diagnosis and corticosteroid-based treatment. Abstract. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) has been reported after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this review, we systematically included worldwide reported cases on this association. We included 30 case reports (pediatric and adults) and explored. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) ADEM is a brief but intense attack of inflammation in the brain, spinal cord and occasionally optic nerve that causes damage to myelin Objective: To describe two patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection and delayed recovery of consciousness after sedation withdrawal, in whom MRI disclosed multifocal white matter brain lesions, compatible with the diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis We describe a patient with acute disseminated encephalitis and COVID-19. CNS manifestations primarily occurred without evident pulmonary symptoms. Brain MRI of the patient indicated diffuse confluent white matter hyperintensities. The patient initially responded to steroids but lastly, died of status epilepticus Acute transverse myelitis (ATM), first described in 1882, is a rare, immune-mediated inflammation of the spinal cord affecting people of any age, race, or gender .This demyelinating disorder encompasses a heterogeneous group of inflammatory disorders that can present as an acute and sub-acute dysfunction of the spinal cord, with a bimodal peak incidence among the ages of 10-19 years and 30-29.

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in adults: a

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an acute demyelinating disease, mostly with a monophasic course. It manifests with a broad spectrum of presentation and with characteristic findings on MRI. However, in some cases, the MRI brain and spinal could be normal during the initial course Clinical and MRI appearances were reviewed in 25 cases of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) seen in a university hospital in South India. Specific viral infections and Semple antirabies vaccination together accounted for 56% of antecedent events. Clinical and MRI features were suggestive of diffuse/multifocal form in 15 patients

1. Introduction. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS) with multiple and variable neurological signs .Its reason has been referred to immunological disorders after exposure to antigenic irritation like viral infection or vaccination that induce multifocal demyelinating lesion of the brain and spinal cord From the case: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) MRI. Loading images... Sagittal T1 There is a longitudinal central T2 hyperintense non-enhancing cord lesion spanning C3-5. No other cord lesion or pathological spinal enhancement identified. Prominent jugular chain lymph nodes (likely reactive) noted Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a monophasic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system typically affecting the gray and the white matter of the brain and spinal cord in multiple locations. In the acute stages, ADEM is characterized histologically by perivenous edema, demyelination, and infiltration with macrophages and.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning is an important part of the diagnosis. In ADEM, there are usually widespread, multiple changes deep in the brain in areas known as the white matter. The white matter is the part of the brain and spinal cord that contains the nerve fibers. How is acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) treated Case Discussion. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), as the name would suggest, is featured by a monophasic acute inflammation and demyelination of white matter typically following a recent (1-2 weeks prior) viral infection or vaccination 1-3.. MRI is far more sensitive than CT and demonstrates lesions characteristic of demyelination

Cao L, Ren L. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccination: a case report. Acta Neurol Belg. 2021; 1:1-3. doi: 10.1007/s13760-021-01608-2. [PMC free article] [Google Scholar Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare auto-immune demyelinating disorder with an incidence in the UK of .23/100 000. 3 The condition is typically triggered by viral infections and leads to a rapid onset of multifocal neurological deficits. An emerging body of evidence has described ADEM in patients with COVID-19. 1 4 Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis will often present to the general paediatrician as an acute polysymptomatic encephalopathy, and initially the diagnosis may not be clear. A brain MRI scan is essential in establishing the diagnosis and so enabling appropriate advice and treatment to be given. Multicentre clinical audit of outcome and controlled therapeutic trials are needed to secure an.

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in children

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare, usually monophasic, immunologically mediated inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) with characteristic polyfocal involvement of the neuroaxis on imaging. It may occur at any age but is most commonly seen in the pediatric population, with the mean age at presentation. Patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) are presumed to have radiological monophasic disease, but this is uncertain since follow-up brain MRI is not routinely performed. We aimed to ascertain combined radiological and clinical monophasic disease in ADEM patients and to assess whether performing early (<6 months) follow-up brain MRI has prognostic value for subsequent.

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) ADEM is a brief but intense attack of inflammation in the brain, spinal cord and occasionally optic nerve that causes damage to myelin. Symptoms of ADEM come on quickly, typically beginning with encephalopathy, including behavioral changes such as confusion or excessive irritability, and an alteration. Sometimes the pattern of MRI abnormalities helps differentiate these two disorders. Most patients with MS are treated with ongoing medication to prevent attacks. Patients with ADEM generally do not require such medication because they do not experience flare-ups. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Neurology. https://n.neurology.org.

ADEM3b

Delayed MR Imaging Changes in Acute Disseminated

  1. ated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of central nervous system (CNS). ADEM is most commonly seen in children, although adults can also be affected. The disease typically starts with an abrupt onset within day to weeks after a viral infection or immunization. Presenting features include an acute.
  2. ated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) with an atypical presentation. TD is a 22-year-old female who presented to the emergency department (ED) with sudden onset of bilateral frontal and occipital headache, nausea, vomiting, unsteady gait, and numbness and tingling in all four extremities
  3. ated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). Multifocal white matter lesions indistinguishable from those seen in multiple sclerosis (MS) were found in 10. In 5 there were rather extensive symmetric abnormalities in the cerebral (2) or cerebellar white.
  4. ated encephalomyelitis is based on clinical and radiological features because there is no specific biological marker or confirmatory test. In acute phase, CT can be unremarkable in up to 40% of the cases
  5. ated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) (three.
  6. ated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) seen in a university hospital in South India. Specific viral infections and Semple antirabies vaccination together accounted for 56% of antecedent events. Clinical and MRI features were suggestive of diffuse/multifocal form in 15 patients. Of the 10 patients with clinically site restricted.
  7. ated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune-mediated inflammatory demyelinating condition that predo

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis Postgraduate

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a multifocal inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS with monophasic presentation, which often follows a recent illness or vaccination. 1 In our review of the ADEM literature, white matter lesions are always evident on MRI scans. We report nearly complete recovery in a patient who developed coma due to severe ADEM, but in whom MRI. From a retrospective analysis, Callen et al propose diagnostic criteria for MRI to distinguish a first MS attack in children from those with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Any 2 of the following criteria could distinguish MS from acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (sensitivity 81%, specificity 95%): (1) absence of a diffuse bilateral.

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare immune-mediated demyelinating disease that has been associated with vaccine and viral infections, including SARS-CoV-2 infection. 2. The causative neuropathogenic mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infection should be carefully analyzed Acute Demyelinating Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) ADEM is a monophasic, multifocal demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system. It primarily affects children. Mean onset in children is 8 years of age. The disorder often follows viral infection or vaccination mri Imaging presentation of MOGAD is variable and with no pathognomonic imaging features, with patients having an imaging phenotype often indistinguishable from other inflammatory white matter diseases of the central nervous system (e.g. acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) , Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and to a lesser. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an acute multifocal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that typically follows an infectious illness. Its clinical course in most cases is monophasic; however, relapsing ADEM is rarely seen, which poses a diagnostic challenge for distinguishing this disease from multiple sclerosis (MS) Multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis is now defined as repeated episodes of demyelination that are separated by at least 3 months, with each episode meeting the definition of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and no evidence of either clinically silent lesion accrual on MRI or any other demyelinating attacks (attacks not meeting.

Video: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis Radiology Case

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare inflammatory, demyelinating disorder of the CNS. Only in the past 15 years have larger groups of patients from several geographical areas been reported for comparisons across studies. In spite of the increased recognition of ADEM, the diagnosis of ADEM remains clinical, aided by neuroimaging confirmation, because of the lack of a biological. Disease. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an acute, autoimmune, demyelinating disease that causes inflammation of the brain and spinal cord, predominantly in children. It is caused by immune-mediated damage to the myelin sheath of the CNS nerves and typically presents clinically with new-onset multifocal neurologic deficits Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a neurological disorder in which inflammation affects the brain and spinal cord. The inflammation causes damage to myelin, the fatty coating that surrounds nerve cells. Myelin is vital for nerve cell protection and function. ADEM often occurs after a viral or bacterial infection, suggesting that it.

Download PDF Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in children. An MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan of the brain and, sometimes, spinal cord is helpful in confirming the diagnosis. A child must keep still for an MRI scan so, if this isn't possible, they will require supervised sedation or a brief general anaesthetic.. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), also known as postinfectious encephalomyelitis, is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Commonly triggered by viral infections, ADEM is caused by an inflammatory reaction in the brain and spinal cord. The onset of encephalopathy and multifocal neurologic deficits is. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a short and sudden bout of inflammation in the brain, spinal cord and, sometimes, the optic nerves. This inflammation damages the protective myelin (white fatty tissue that surrounds nerves) in the brain. ADEM often occurs after a viral or bacterial infection Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), 147-157, 217 cerebrospinal fluid, 153-154 clinical features, 151-153 clinical manifestations, 153 CNS, 147 meningeal symptoms, 157 diagnostic imaging, 154t, 155 disease comparison, 150t EAE, 151 epidemiology, 147-148 immunopathology, 149-151 infections and immunizations, 148t MRI, 147 CSF. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a neurological, immune-mediated disorder in which widespread inflammation of the brain and spinal cord damages tissue known as white matter. White matter is tissue composed of nerve fibers, many of which are covered by a collection of fats and proteins known as myelin

ADEM or MS? How to differentiate between two favored

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare kind of inflammation that affects the brain and spinal cord, usually in children. It damages the coating that protects nerve fibers, called. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a disease of the central nervous system (CNS) mainly affecting children. It usually occurs within 2 days to 4 weeks following a triggering factor such a viral infection or an immunization Newly occurring multifocal neurological symptoms suggest acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), so that rapid diagnosis including MRI and CSF analysis should be initiated.MRI imaging with contrast agent administration is essential for the detection of inflammatory lesions. A complementary hemorrhage-sensitive sequence helps to detect a. The authors present a case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in a COVID-19 pediatric patient with positive SARS-CoV2 markers from a nasopharyngeal swab. A previously healthy 12-year-old-girl presented with a skin rash, headache, and fever. Five days after that, she had an acute, progressive, bilateral, and symmetrical motor weakness. She evolved to respiratory failure. Magnetic resonance. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), or acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis, is a rare autoimmune disease marked by a sudden, widespread attack of inflammation in the brain and spinal cord.As well as causing the brain and spinal cord to become inflamed, ADEM also attacks the nerves of the central nervous system and damages their myelin insulation, which, as a result, destroys the.

Pediatric optic neuritis (PON) is one of the commonest causes of acute vision loss in children. Although it might often be postinfectious or postvaccination, recent understanding and available evidence suggest that it can be the first manifestation of a neuro-inflammatory syndrome such as multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis or myelin. Generally, clinical, laboratory, and MRI findings of the Because all patients except cases 7 and 11 had at least 6 first attack are not helpful in distinguishing relapsing from years' follow-up, we also intended to identify any features nonrelapsing acute disseminated encephalomyelitis patients. arguing against the diagnosis of relapsing. Spinal cord lesions on MRI may be anterior and longitudinally extensive. Clinical improvement may follow standard treatment with corticosteroids or plasma exchange. 17 33 34. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a parainfective or postinfective immunological disease associated with multifocal neurological symptoms and encephalopathy.

Non-Tumoural Spinal Cord Lesions | Radiology Key

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Information Page

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. ADEM is thought to be an autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own brain tissue, triggered by an environmental stimulus in genetically susceptible individuals ACUTE DISSEMINATED ENCEPHALOMYELITIS Definition ADEM is a polyfocal, typically monophasic, demyelinating event with encephalopathy. In 2013 the International Pedi-atric MultipleSclerosis StudyGroupupdatedthe diagnostic criteria so that all of the following are required (3): † A first polyfocal clinical CNS event with a presume Huber S, Kappos L, Fuhr P, et al. Combined acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and acute motor axonal neuropathy after vaccination for hepatitis A and infection with Campylobacter jejuni. J Neurol 1999; 246:1204. Murthy JM. MRI in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following Semple antirabies vaccine. Neuroradiology 1998; 40:420

Mowry E. Long lesions ion initial spinal cord MRI predict a final diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis versus multiple sclerosis in children. Neurology 2008 ; 70 (Suppl 1): A135 . 23 Journal of the Neurological Sciences 165 (1999) 133-138 Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: clinical and MRI study from South India J.M.K. Murthy a , *, Ravi Yangala a , A.K. Meena a , J. Jaganmohan Reddy b a Department of Neurology, Nizam' s Institute of Medical Sciences, Panjagutta, Hyderabad 500 082, India b Department of Radiology, Nizam' s Institute of Medical Sciences, Panjagutta. A clinical and radiologic diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis was made in two children: a 6-month-old female who presented with focal seizures and thalamic and cerebral white matter. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis-MRI Tuesday, January 12, 2010 ADEM, MRI, Neuroradiology. MRI in ADEM demonstrates regions of high T2 signal, with surrounding oedema. Punctuate, ring or arc enhancement is often demonst..

Delayed MR Imaging Changes in Acute Disseminated

Abstract. Brain MRI was performed on 12 patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). Multifocal white matter lesions indistinguishable from those seen in multiple sclerosis (MS) were found in 10. In 5 there were rather extensive symmetric abnormalities in the cerebral (2) or cerebellar white matter (2), or basal ganglia (1) Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease, characterized by an acute onset of polyfocal central nervous system (CNS) deficits, including encephalopathy, demonstrating multifocal lesions on MRI. ADEM is typically a monophasic disorder, but recurrent and multiphasic courses have been described Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an immune-mediated inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which is typically transitory and self-limiting. It is characterized by an acute or subacute encephalopathy with neurological deficits, and magnetic resonance imaging evidence of widespread demyelination that. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) shows multiple demyelinating lesions. The diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis requires both multifocal involvement and encephalopathy by consensus.

Objective. To describe the epidemiologic, clinical, neuroimaging, and laboratory features; treatment; and outcome in a cohort of children with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). Methods. A 6-year retrospective chart review of children with the diagnosis of ADEM was conducted. Results. Eighteen cases were identified. Sixteen patients (88%) presented in either winter or spring Objectives. To describe our experience with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), focusing on (1) the relationship between clinical course and MRI findings and (2) the response to plasmapheresis in a subgroup of patients. Methods. A retrospective record review was conducted of 13 children who were admitted as inpatients with the diagnosis of ADEM during the period 1998-2003 Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare immune-mediated condition predominantly affecting children. MRI scans are required to confirm the diagnosis and to distinguish it from Multiple Sclerosis in the few cases in which recurrent episodes occur. Although ADEM is a self-limiting disease, recovery may be prolonged

An Axial MRI of the brain and a saggital MRI of the spine of a patient with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) 44. MRI abnormalities • Brainstem and spinal cord abnormalities on MRI are common in ADEM • spinal cord, large confluent intramedullary lesions that extend over multiple segments are typical - Enhancement is variable. 45 Background Brain stem lesions are common in patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), neuromyelitis optica (NMO), and multiple sclerosis (MS). Objectives To investigate comparative brain stem lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) among adult patients with ADEM, NMO, and MS. Methods Sixty-five adult patients with ADEM (n = 17), NMO (n = 23), and MS (n = 25) who had brain. MRI in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis MRI in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis Caldemeyer, K.; Smith, R.; Harris, T.; Edwards, M. 1994-04-01 00:00:00 234 36 36 3 3 K. S. Caldemeyer R. R. Smith T. M. Harris M. K. Edwards Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology Indiana University School of Medicine Indianapolis Indiana USA Wishard Memorial Hospital 1001 West 10th Street. Background . Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and mild encephalopathy with reversible splenial lesion are autoimmune demyelinating disorders of central nervous system. Diagnosis remains clinical, aided by neuroimaging confirmation and excluding other causes. In the absence of a biological marker, the diagnosis of these entities based on clinical and imaging criteria could overlap. <i.

Brain MRI was performed on 12 patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). Multifocal white matter lesions indistinguishable from those seen in multiple sclerosis (MS) were found in 10 I reviewed MRI findings in five patients with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following vaccination with Semple antirabies vaccine. MRI in two patients with encephalitis features showed multiple white matter lesions in the cerebrum, cerebellar peduncles and brain stem. Two patients who had features of cord involvement showed signal alterations in the cord extending over a few segments.

Case 1's MRI changes were consistent with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. The patients also displayed blood markers, to varying degree, of autoimmunity and hypercoagulability Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an uncommon autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system.1,2 It is more common in the pediatric population but can occur in adults.3 In most cases, ADEM is preceded by an acute viral illness and in ex-tremely rare cases by vaccination.4,5,6 Clinica No old plaques on imaging (MRI). An acute form exists known as acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (AKA acute necrotizing hemorrhagic encephalomyelitis). Microscopic. Features: Myelin loss with sparing of axons. Inflammation: Early: neutrophils. Late: mononuclear cells (lymphocytes, plasma cells). Lipid-laden macrophages. DDx: Multiple sclerosis Background: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the CNS. Few pediatric series have been published, with retrospective and short-term follow-up studies. Objectives : To describe a cohort of pediatric patients with ADEM and to determine whether clinical and neuroimaging findings predict outcome The differential diagnosis of CNS white matter disease is broad, and can be divided into vascular, metabolic, infective, or inflammatory aetiologies. Isolated inflammatory disorders of the CNS are often associated with demyelination, and the two terms (inflammatory and demyelinating) are often used in conjunction. When the disease is monophasic, the term acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

Objectives . Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder that is often preceded by infection or recent vaccination. Encephalopathy and focal neurological deficits are usually manifest several weeks after a prodromal illness with rapidly progressive neurologic decline. ADEM is most commonly seen in children and young adults, in which prognosis is. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system (brain, spinal cord, optic nerves). This condition typically presents in children and is defined by inflammation of the brain, with or without spinal cord or optic nerve involvement. ADEM may occur in adults but is more common in children

Initial DWI and ADC imaging may predict outcome in acuteDetection of Coronavirus in the Central Nervous System of

Abstract. Forty-eight children with disseminated demyelination of the CNS, 28 with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), seven with multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis (MDEM) and 13 with multiple sclerosis were studied for a mean follow-up period of 5.64 years Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a monophasic, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that predominately affects prepubertal children. The MRI of the brain showed an. Post-infectious and inflammatory encephalomyelitis are broadly represented by the syndrome acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). ADEM forms one of several categories of primary inflammatory demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system. Others include multiple sclerosis (MS), acute transverse myelitis, and Devic's disease. It should be remembered that these are syndromically.